Italy is one of the oldest and most diverse wine-producing countries in the world. Its climate ranges from the hot, dry Mediterranean coast to the cooler Alpine foothills in the north, with a variety of microclimates in between. As a result, Italy produces a wide range of grape varieties and wine styles.
Some of the most famous grape varieties in Italy include Sangiovese, Nebbiolo, Barbera, and Montepulciano for reds, and Pinot Grigio, Vermentino, and Trebbiano for whites. Italian wine styles include everything from light and fruity to full-bodied and tannic, with a variety of sparkling, fortified, and dessert wines as well.
The country is divided into 20 regions, each with its own unique wine culture and traditions. In the north, regions like Piedmont and Veneto are known for their powerful and complex reds like Barolo and Amarone. In central Italy, Tuscany is famous for its Sangiovese-based wines like Chianti and Brunello di Montalcino, while Umbria produces rich and spicy Sagrantino wines.
In the south, Sicily is the largest island and produces a range of wines, from crisp whites like Grillo and Carricante to bold reds like Nero d'Avola and Frappato. Other important regions in the south include Puglia, known for its full-bodied Primitivo, and Campania, which produces rich and complex whites like Fiano and Greco di Tufo.